Of radiation? Maybe. Isegoria links to a study reporting on the result of an accidental Cobalt-60 contamination incident that exposed 10,000 people to 9 to 12 years of chronic radiation.
If the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model constructed based upon data from the atomic explosions in Japan is appropriate for evaluating chronic radiation, such excessive doses received by the contaminated apartment residents could induce at least 35 excess leukemia and 35 solid cancer deaths after 21 years. However, actually no increase cancers were observed. On the contrary, the spontaneous cancer deaths of the residents totaled 243 over 21 years based upon the vital statistics provided by the Taiwanese government. The mortality rate from these cancers dropped to only 3% of the general population as shown in the following graph.
There were also fewer hereditary defects in the children of exposed persons.
Scientists may be able to produce a radioactive vaccine to prevent cancer.